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 طه حسين

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عدد المساهمات : 3460
تاريخ التسجيل : 16/08/2011
الموقع : مصريه

مُساهمةموضوع: طه حسين   السبت سبتمبر 03, 2011 10:52 am

ein

Writer
and critic and novelist, a senior Egyptian title of dean of Arabic
literature has been in the realm of prospects because Taha Hussein was
in sight at the age of 3 years, however he managed to compose hundreds
of books and submit to the Arab literature curriculum, lessons and
schools that walked by many after you .. Although the loss of his
eyesight at an early age but he continued his education until he
received his doctorate and it reached the Continuer a total when he was
appointed Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Cairo University, an interim
president for University Farouk I, the first director of the University
of Hiroshima, decided to free secondary education Egypt, established
Ain Shams University, and was a member of the complex linguistic and
President since 1963 until his death, is the director of the Egyptian
writer, was a member of the Supreme Council for Arts and Social
Sciences and the decision of the Commission since its establishment by
the translation.


Taha
Hussein, a strong advocate of renewal Odhu a sense of national
sensitivity, loved to Egypt and aware of his membership of the Arab
nation, and estimated for the affiliation of human beings all of
mankind, and lived a teacher and lecturer and writes criticism and
description, translations, literature, article, story, the owner of a
school and curriculum in exchange especially in literature windows on
the world literature, especially Greek and French at the same time is
influenced by far.


Taha
Hussein, received an honorary doctorate in many foreign countries
including France, Spain, Italy and medals from Lebanon, Tunisia and
Morocco. From Egypt, granting Collar of the Nile which are granted only
to heads of state, had won his first prize estimated in the literature
and the granting of State's Award for his book: On the sidelines
Biography Award, the Arts, and was the first award of the State Merit
of Arts, and also granted the Order «Legion Donner Légion d'honneur
»France and grants from the United Nations Human Rights Award and
received before his death one day.


Egyptian
manuscripts collected from different areas of the world and in a
special department in the university and published a number of
scientific manuscripts published as the cradle of the Arab Organization
for Education, Science and Culture, when the organization completed
its work in the Arab League.


Birth and Early Life:

Born
writer the great Arab Taha Hussein in the fourteenth of the month of
November 1889, and lived his early childhood in that part of the small
town at a distance of one kilometer from the scene of Minya governorate
in the middle of the level of Egypt (Manor kilo) was Taha Hussein had
lost his sight at the age of three years This was the impairment is
the cause of the early detection of queens, Taha Hussein, was able to
form a vivid picture in his mind for every member of his family,
depending on the movement and the voice of them all, but a direct cause
of the disclosure of determination after he decided to overcome Aahth
to unleash his imagination to the far horizon may not informing
sighted.


His
father, Hussein Ali, a member of the Sugar and fathered thirteen and a
boy was Sabahm in the order "Taha" hit by conjunctivitis Faljh barber
treatment went with his own eyes (as he says himself in the book
"days") was Taha Hussein had lost his eyesight because of (ignorance
and backwardness) were words of his father's friend then that Taha is
not fit to be anything Mqria of the Koran at the grave and give the
people it made him get shocked, and feel the pain hidden inside it,
maybe this fails what might be called depression. He was a child
Antoaiia, does not speak with one of the one does not share toys. Has
always been serious, the Holy Quran, the son of seven years, and
insisted that lessons had to attend in the village, even among his
peers emerged from sighted conservation and a sense of what they
receive from the lessons.


Departed
in early childhood to listen to stories, speeches, and joined the
comrades of his father in a seminar times in the courtyard listening to
the verses of the Koran and stories of invasions, conquest and News
Antar, Zahir Baybars and news of the prophets and hermits righteous and
keep the Koran in the book of the village and then mastered the Quran
arose on the background and crystal clear and the culture of a large
and distinguished in Arab Islamic history the old and the Koran in his
hands who did save it before completing the full ten years old!


Enrollment at the University of Al-Azhar:

Started
his major when he left Cairo for Al-Azhar a request for information
which is in nearly fourteen years of age, and in 1908 began the
features of personal Taha Hussein rebel Appear started bothered
lectures most of the sheikhs Alatbaiin Vaguetsr to attend only some of
them such a lesson Sheikh Bakhit and the lessons of literature and
therefore not only interested in the education of Al-Azhar, as has
tended to literature-keeping articles Hariri and a range of speeches
Imam and shrines Bediuzzaman AlHamzani and agreed that he and Sheikh
Marsafy in Bgdahma sheikhs and their love strong for freedom of free
and taken from Marsafy love of money and freedom.


The
fact that he and his two companions Ahmed Hassan El Zayat Mahmoud
Zinati group publicized criticism of the flower, preferring books, old
books Azhar and read collections of poetry and studied at the hand of
Imam Muhammad Abdu, who taught rebellion against the methods Alatbaiin
religious leaders from the Al-Azhar that ended up to the farewell-Azhar
to begin another phase of his life has been expelled from Al-Azhar
because of the many criticisms are no longer accessible only by means
of a top Senate!


Entering the university in Egypt:

In
the same year opened the Egyptian university down, left and Al-Azhar,
he joined and heard the lessons of Ahmed Zaki (Pasha) in the Islamic
civilization, Ahmed Kamal (Pasha) in the ancient Egyptian civilization
and the lessons of geography, history and Semitic languages, astronomy,
literature and philosophy Idosatzp Egyptians and foreigners, was
entering the Egyptian University beginning of a new to receive science
and education of self and to clarify the vision and goal setting!


Ended
Taha Hussein in the period from the preparation of his message to get
the Ph.D. degree (and was narrated that Abu Ala), and discussed the
letter in the fifteenth of the month of May 1914 to get out on the
first doctorate degree awarded by the Egyptian University to one of her
students, which caused when printed in the Book of huge controversy
and conflicting positions amounted to a claim of a lower house of
parliament to deprive Taha Hussein degree university he wrote a book
where many of the signs of enlightenment, they said that it was
(atheism and blasphemy) note that it was the first book was presented
to the Egyptian University and the first Ph.D. granted by the Egyptian
University to one of her students.


Not
only Taha Hussein, then the intervention of Saad Zaghloul, Chairman of
the Legislative Assembly of parliament at that time to persuade the MP
to go back on its demands, but a response to his rivals and then
strongly and courageously in all that they wrote it did not find
something in it deserves a response as described by the time they
resort to crooked ways to understand and Methods old thinking!!


Pay
ambition and diligence to complete his postgraduate studies in Paris,
despite objections from the Board of Missions of the many, but he
re-submitting the request three times, and managed to eventually get
approval to go towards a new dream is to get a doctorate from France
(the country Khawagat).


His trip to Paris:

If
the first flight has a deep impact in the life of Taha Hussein, and
the idea of moving from his village, forgotten in Upper Egypt to Cairo
... The other, the trip was the most influential and to France in 1914
where he joined the University there (Montpellier) away from Paris to
one of the areas of World War I at the time ... There is in
Montpellier, studied French and psychology, literature, history and
financial reasons, the University has the Egyptian envoys in the
following year 1915, but at the end of the year returned Taha Hussein
to his mission, but to Paris this time, as he joined the Faculty of
Arts at the University of Paris and received lessons in history and in
the meeting, prepared a letter the other hands, a sociologist famous
"Emile Durkheim" and was on the theme "Social Philosophy Ibn Khaldun,"
where its entirety with the "Bogelet" after the death of Durkheim and
discussed, and he obtained a doctorate degree in 1919 and then won in
the same year the Graduate Diploma in Latin .



His story with his partner Susan:

Know,
Dr. Taha Hussein, Ms. Susan when she read a section of hair, I'd like
ricin voice tones and love the way he is attached to the dumping of
this bird, which landed in foreign nests in the heart sad, recalling
the words of Bashar ibn Burd and ear before the eye sometimes love ..


It
was love Aqaad to this girl and French as a mating spiritual between
the shores of the Mediterranean and simulation of civilization, East
and West, also referred to this love by French great Robert Landry,
where said one day while Taha Hussein in his seat in the auditorium of
the Sorbonne University, heard the beautiful voice rings in his ears
voice Zvia affectionate tell him sweetly: I am able to help you in
recalling the lessons, and was the voice is only (MRS) requesting
French Afro-Catholic family has been hesitant for a long time before it
would agree to marry, Taha Hussein, a Muslim man, after he succeeded
in one of her uncles to convince her and that was Uncle priest had said
to her: With this man could Tthagy he would stay with you forever will
be you will find happiness never «so he married him on the ninth of
August 1917 and actually probably a woman to live with a blind man I
love in his heart before he sees with his own eyes the most beautiful
and happiest days rather than marry a man who has eyes see them all
the women of this world Vihvo his heart to those related to another
soul .. How is married to Dr. Adib and a man with a determination to
overcome disabilities that was born to be a reason for entering the
literary history of the wider doors!


Because
Ms. Susan had a great effect in his life after that, he said Dr. Taha
Hussein on his meeting with them (like the sun she came back in the day
of the spring Fjelt the city was engulfed by that cloud, which was
some of installing some of which was plagued and bombed the city until
filled or almost filled with pity and Ruaa Taking all of the city to
become brighter and Nora).


This
young man who came from the village poor, the scattered food on his
clothes when eating, and was dressed knows how to take care of him,
came Susan, which changed his entire life, and became grateful to it,
so when she was asleep pointed at her and told his daughter: "These
women have made of your father's man else!


Says
Susan in her book that Taha Hussein was suffering from bouts of
depression, when comes such episodes, isolated and do not meet anyone,
do not speak or eat, and his wife was known by their knowledge of her
that this is called depression, but feared Taha treated for this
depression until not wounding him, where he was very sensitive due to
preclude visual, did not respond to increase case before it. She used
to say that the bouts of depression, or as they call them that Siqt a
deep hole, one can not access it .. If Itazl the world, no longer
wants anything whatsoever, even though his sons love them it was a
sweeping Etjnnbhm and lives in complete isolation, cut off from
everything around him. His wife says that if there was anything to help
him to get rid of these episodes there is no doubt that the production
will be better and more!



His return to Egypt and the crises in waiting:

In
1919 he returned to Egypt, Taha Hussein was appointed professor of
Greek and Roman history and also continued until 1925, where became the
Egyptian University in that year to the University of governmental and
Taha Hussein was appointed professor of the history of Arabic
Literature, Faculty of Arts.


Despite
his rebellion against many of the views of his professors, but the
battle of Taha Hussein, the first major for enlightenment and respect
for the mind began in 1926 when issued the book "At the Pre-Islamic
Poetry," which caused huge controversy began political before it is
literary, and filed a lawsuit against Taha Hussein ordered Prosecution
to withdraw the book from retail outlets and stopped distribution ...
The fierce battles erupted on the pages of newspapers between
supporters and opponents of this book.


In
1928, before subsiding stir a book of poetry ignorant final uproar
erupted second appointment as Dean of the Faculty of Arts, which
triggered another political crisis ended with an agreement with Taha
Hussein to resign Vastrt to appoint I. .. Already appointed a day and
then presented her resignation in the evening and was "Micho" French as
Dean of the Faculty of Arts, but with the Dean Michaud in 1930 opted
for college, Taha Hussein, dean and approved by the Minister of
knowledge that did not continue in office only two days after such
approval and asked him to resign.


In
1932 the great crisis occurred in the course of the life of Taha
Hussein ... In February 1932 the government wants to grant an honorary
doctorate from the Faculty of Arts for some politicians ... Taha
Hussein was rejected in order to preserve the status of Degree, forcing
the government to resort to the Faculty of Law ...


In
response, the Minister decided to knowledge transfer, Taha Hussein,
Cabinet Office, rejected work and continued the campaign in newspapers
and the university also declined to resolve the crisis only after the
return to work and the intervention of the Prime Minister referred him
to retire on 29 March 1932 Vlzim home and practiced writing in some
newspapers that bought the franchise Journal "valley" and took charge
of editing, and then returned to the university at the end of 1934 and
returned two years later as dean of the College of Arts and continued
until 1939 when it assigned an observer of the culture in the Ministry
of Education until 0.1942


Because
his career has always been part of political life in Egypt, up and
down it was delivered the Wafd Party to rule on February 4, 1942 marked
a shift else in his career where deputed Naguib Hilaly's Minister of
Education then served as technical director and then director of the
University of Alexandria until he was to retire on October 16 the first
1944 and continued as such until June 13, 1950 when he was appointed
first secretary of knowledge in the Wafd government, which lasted until
June 26, 1952 the day of the burning of Cairo, where the government is
dissolved.


That
was another governmental functions undertaken by Taha Hussein, which
went away after that, and even death to the production of intellectual
activity in several science parks, which was a member of the inside and
outside Egypt, remained Taha Jdhirith after that went to intellectual
production, and has been written in the era of the Egyptian revolution ,
that died Abdel Nasser, and the October War, which, after having died
on 28 October 1973.


Wonderful days:

The
masterpiece (days), which drafted the chapters in writing and the fact
that Dr. Taha Hussein impact creative from the effects of storms
raised by the book (in the Pre-Islamic Poetry), began to write nearly a
year after the beginning of the storm, as if he uses on the present
with the past to be paid to the future It seems that the intensity of
the attack upon him, pushed him to internalize the harsh life of
boyhood, and putting them into accountability, derived from the special
miracle resisted by the blindness and ignorance in the past, the
ability to face the storms of the present.


He
has published Aqaad Taha Hussein, the first part of the days in the
articles in a row in the preparation of Crescent in 1926, which is a
product of the stage at which books which (in the Pre-Islamic Poetry),
and characterized this period of life great writer - may God have mercy
on him - Bschth clear on the traditions of society and habits of his
countrymen was the production days dont reflect the exasperation of the
author own reality of social, especially after it came to life in
Western society developed, while the allegiance of Taha Hussein, the
countryside of Egypt, and was passing through the lives of harsh
backdrop myth and legends, traditions, and that was the cause of
depriving his eyesight, as well as to the authority of traditional
institutions (the book, Al-Azhar) And all of these factors and was born
in the same sense of bitterness and a deep sense of backwardness and
determined more on the call for renewal and development and lack of
tradition and following the wrong which exists only in the minds and
hearts of the weak and ignorant people!


According
to one book in the description of the days: The (days) models unique
biography explore, the ego lives in the past to resist Tstqtr including
its present challenges, dreamy promising future that is free of
obstacles of the past and present challenges to both. And the
relationship between the past, recovered in the curriculum vitae and
the present that decides the direction to do the restore like the
relationship between the parent and the mirror, the parent who is
present tense, looking for balance and to remember his past, Vistdeih
awareness of writing for looking forward as looking self to itself in a
mirror, a researcher for a moment of moments of complete
self-knowledge as to restore the balance in the present, which has
damaged by .. As a result, diving deep into the past self, making your
way to the Public, and subjective way to human, domestic and another
side of the World Creativity inherent (days) involves the meaning of
the allegory of self-transformed into a living example of man's ability
to make a miracle that liberation from the shackles of necessary and
underdevelopment, ignorance and injustice, in search of a promising
prospect of freedom and progress, science and justice. These are values
that it embodies (days) in the language of pure creativity which is
rich stylistic rare that made her a unique tag of the signs of modern
Arabic literature.


Some books by Taha Hussein:

Leave
Taha Hussein when he left this life more than three hundred and eighty
a book value and remind you of some of the books Taha Hussein: days,
the promise of the right, The Wretched of the Earth, in the Pre-Islamic
Poetry, lyrics, criticism and reform of literature representative of
Greece, Taha Hussein and the Arab Maghreb, plover prayer, talk
Wednesday, voice Abu Ala, from afar, on the sidelines of the biography,
in the summer, the anniversary of Abu Alaa, the philosophy of Ibn
Khaldun's social democracy in Islam.
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طه حسين
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